Example of a Research Paper

 

example of scientific research paper

An APA Research Paper Model Thomas Delancy and Adam Solberg wrote the following research paper for a psychology class. As you review their paper, read the side notes and examine the following: The use and documentation of their numerous sources. The background they . The experiment: Say you have just conducted the Milgram droaculas.gq you want to write the research paper for it. (Milgram actually waited two years before writing about his study.) Here's a shortened example of a research article that MIGHT have been written. Elements of the Scientific Research Paper • Title • Abstract • Introduction • Methods • Results • Discussion • Works Cited • Appendices While all scientific research reports share a common organizational setup, you will find variations within reports. The common structure of the report is to ensure ease of reading.


Example of Scientific Paper


This sample Scientific Method Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Also check our tips on how to write a research papersee the lists of research paper topicsand browse research paper examples.

A received view of this method has evolved in the seventeenth century as a synthesis of ideas of Bacon, Boyle, and Newton. Roughly, scientific method consists of indiscriminate observations of regularities, gathering example of scientific research paper on repeatable phenomena, and using it as a sound basis for theorizing. Scientific method is, then, a talisman for success.

Accordingly, researchers strive to show that their work conforms to scientific method—to the point of distortion. Yet, famously, all guarantees of success in research are worthless.

Plato declared that the validity of ideas depends on their pedigree. Tradition offers only two views on the source of ideas: It is intuition—intellectualism, apriorism Plato — or it is observation—empiricism, inductivism Aristotle. Question: Where should thinking or observing begin? No answer. Reliance on both thought and experience as sources of knowledge is impossible, as they may mismatch; yet their judicious use as procedures is possible: Apriorism admits experience as hints; inductivism admits hypotheses as temporary scaffolding.

Sir Francis Bacon, the father of the modern scientific method and a precursor of the Enlightenment, was the first to realize that preconceived opinions distort observation, as they invariably confirm themselves; reliable observations come from unbiased minds. So he recommended relinquishing all preconceptions. This is radicalism; it bespeaks utter rationality. The classical rationalists of the Age of Reason viewed humans as utterly rational, with reason as free of local individual differences.

Their theories ignored these differences; their economic theory concerned only free trade; their political theory deemed the state as taking care of the contracts, including those between ruler and subject; religion they viewed as private, independent of any established church. Social researchers thus viewed individual conduct as purely rational and as yielding to individually endorsed motives exclusively, example of scientific research paper.

Thus, their views on scientific method embody a view of humanity as rational and the individual as preceding society. To date it dominates the natural sciences, economics, and behaviorist and Freudian psychology. After the failure of the French Revolution, the dominant view within social studies had history as its paradigm, and its agenda largely aimed at shunning radicalism by presenting political theory historically, example of scientific research paper, deprecating democracy and science.

As views on scientific method differed, example of scientific research paper, so views differed as to whether social studies start with individuals and reach the study of example of scientific research paper social whole or vice versa.

This was then a backlash against radicalism. Scientific method example of scientific research paper inapplicable to society, he declared, example of scientific research paper, since societies have historical roots; there is no social example of scientific research paper even though nations are subject to historical laws. Schelling, Hegel, and others, developed new methods, variants of which some twentieth-century thinkers embraced, especially Henri Bergson and Edmund Husserl.

Karl Popper endorsed this distinction, incidentally: His theory of explanation—situational logic—encompasses both models, and allows for reference to both individuals and institutions. Heidegger preferred poetic truth to scientific truth.

He recommended the study of texts, not of facts, hoping that certitude is achievable there, with wider conclusions. Derrida objected: There is no one certain way to read a text. Sartre first accepted scientific method and endorsed behaviorism. As he was later impressed with psychoanalysis, he gave up both. Incidentally, Popper considered both violations of the rules of scientific method, as he rejected the received view.

They sought the scientific historical laws that permit predictions. Marx stressed that scientific method sanctify his predictions, rendering them incontestable.

Not all his followers share his respect for science. Is dissent a challenge to their scientific credentials? Or did prejudice distort their use of scientific method? These are difficult questions. He trusted rigorous tests to eliminate error. Bacon promised that empty minds will follow scientific method and produce true theories; Whewell denied that: We need hypotheses; occasionally, researchers hit upon true ones and verify them empirically, he said.

His view won popularity among physicists while social thinkers followed Mill. At the end of the nineteenth century, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber, known as the fathers of modern sociology, circumvented him and shifted the debate away from history back to the other question that Hegel had raised: Which is primary, the individual or the social whole?

Their writings on society and on scientific method ignore historical laws. This is hard to comprehend, but clearly, he wanted to broaden classical individualist methodology to make it recognize collective entities. Does his view of culture allow for this? He left this question open. Hence, as a response to Hegel, his theory is incomplete. His attention lay elsewhere: He insisted that a culture coheres with its society. He invented functionalism, the view that social wholes are coherent, example of scientific research paper.

A clear counterexample to this is crime: It is dysfunctional. He suggested that crime has a function: to remind society of the law. This does not block the counterexample: The need for violent reminders bespeaks incoherence. Once functionalism incorporates dysfunctional aspects, it becomes trivial and abandons coherence. He applied this to the division of labor: High specialization enables a striking worker to bring society to a halt and forces it to cohere organic solidarity.

This is too vague to be open to criticism. His studies identify typical value-systems of typical members of various classes and societies. His theory of scientific method thus steers between classical individualism and collectivism. Karl Popper suggested considered action as strictly individual but within social contexts—situational logic—thus achieving a view that is in the traditional individualist mode, without being radical.

This opens the road for new kinds of explanation— especially for actions aiming at institutional reform. For success, this is necessary but insufficient: There is no guarantee. Scientific example of scientific research paper is then not the truth, but the best available approximation to it.

This closes the debate comparing the rules for natural and social studies. For explanations in the social sciences to be refutable, they should center on individual actions. Science is now increasingly seen as the search for answers to interesting questions that are open to criticism. Another development is of the example of scientific research paper outlook: Both individual and society are systems of sorts Mario Bunge.

How is action at all possible? This question is outside the domain of social studies; these take actions as given and center on their unintended consequences Hayek —especially actions intended to improve society.

Systemism is incomplete without a theory of scientific method. This, however, is a matter for future discussions of scientific method adequate for social studies. The starting point of any such study has to be an examination of the history and sociology of the social sciences, especially of example of scientific research paper question, what do we owe to the diverse school of thought of the past and to their august members?

Free research papers are not written to satisfy your specific instructions. You can use our professional writing services to buy a custom research paper on any topic and get example of scientific research paper high quality paper at affordable price. Research Paper Examples. Philosophy Research Paper Examples.

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Sample Paper in Scientific Format – Writing Across the Curriculum – UW–Madison

 

example of scientific research paper

 

Sample Paper in Scientific Format; The scientific name of the research organism must be stated the first time the organism is mentioned in any of the sections. Thereafter, within each section, either the common name or the abbreviated scientific name can be used. It has been shown, for example, that parental plumage color has a strong. An APA Research Paper Model Thomas Delancy and Adam Solberg wrote the following research paper for a psychology class. As you review their paper, read the side notes and examine the following: The use and documentation of their numerous sources. The background they . This sample Scientific Method Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes droaculas.gq you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of research paper topics, and browse research paper examples.